Historical Cocoa beans Graph 54 Years (1960- 2014)

Cocoa Beans

Snap 2014-10-12 at 16.30.25

Snap 2014-10-12 at 16.38.49

The Ancient Mesoamerican Currency!


The cocoa bean, also cacao bean or simply cocoa (/ˈk.k/) or cacao (/kəˈk/), is the dried and fully fermented fatty seed ofTheobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and cocoa butter are extracted. They are the basis of chocolate, as well as manyMesoamerican foods such as mole sauce and tejate.

A cocoa pod (fruit) has a rough and leathery rind about 3 cm (1.2 in) thick (this varies with the origin and variety of pod). It is filled with sweet,mucilaginous pulp (called ‘baba de cacao’ in South America) enclosing 30 to 50 large seeds that are fairly soft and white to a pale lavender color. While seeds are usually white, they become violet or reddish brown during the drying process. The exception is rare varieties of white cacao, in which the seeds remain white. Historically, white cacao was cultivated by the Rama people of Nicaragua.


The cacao tree is native to the Americas. It may have originated in the foothills of the Andes in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of South America, current day Colombia andVenezuela, where today, examples of wild cacao still can be found. However, it may have had a larger range in the past, evidence for which may be obscured because of its cultivation in these areas long before, as well as after, the Spanish arrived. New chemical analyses of residues extracted from pottery excavated at an archaeological site at Puerto Escondido in Honduras indicate that it was here where cocoa products were first consumed between 1400 and 1500 BC. The new evidence also indicates that, long before the flavor of the cacao seed (or bean) became popular, it was the sweet pulp of the chocolate fruit, used in making a fermented (5% alcohol) beverage, which first drew attention to the plant in the Americas. The cocoa bean was a common currency throughout Mesoamerica before the Spanish conquest.

Cacao trees will grow in a limited geographical zone, of approximately 20 degrees to the north and south of the Equator. Nearly 70% of the world crop is grown in West Africa.

Cocoa was an important commodity in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. A Spanish soldier who was part of the conquest of Mexico by Hernán Cortés tells that when Moctezuma II, emperor of the Aztecs, dined, he took no other beverage than chocolate, served in a golden goblet. Flavored with vanilla or other spices, his chocolate was whipped into a froth that dissolved in the mouth. It is reported that no fewer than 60 portions each day may have been consumed by Moctezuma II, and 2000 more by the nobles of his court.

Chocolate was introduced to Europe by the Spaniards, and became a popular beverage by the mid 17th century. They also introduced the cacao tree into the West Indies and thePhilippines. It was also introduced into the rest of Asia and into West Africa by Europeans. In the Gold Coast, modern Ghana, cacao was introduced by an African, Tetteh Quarshie.

The cacao plant was first given its botanical name by Swedish natural scientist Carl Linnaeus in his original classification of the plant kingdom, who called it Theobroma (“food of the gods”) cacao.

Chocolate is seen to be affected by the effects of global warming.


Cocoa trees grow in hot, rainy tropical areas within 20° of latitude from the equator. Cocoa harvest is not restricted to one period per year. Usually it occurs over several months and in many countries cocoa can be harvested at any time of the year. Pesticides are often applied to the trees to combat capsid bugs and fungicides to fight black pod disease.

Immature cocoa pods have a variety of colors but most often are green, red, or purple, and as they mature their color tends towards yellow or orange, particularly in their creases. Unlike most fruiting trees, the cacao pod grows directly from the trunk or large branch of a tree rather than from the end of a branch, similar to jackfruit. This makes harvesting by hand easier as most of the pods will not be up in the higher branches. The pods on a tree do not ripen together; harvesting needs to be done periodically through the year. Harvesting occurs between three and four times to weekly during the harvest season.The ripe and near-ripe pods, as judged by their color, are harvested from the trunk and branches of the cocoa tree with a curved knife on a long pole. Care must be used when cutting the stem of the pod to avoid injuring the junction of the stem with the tree, as this is where future flowers and pods will emerge. It is estimated one person can harvest 650 pods per day.

Biggest Producers of Cocoa in the World

Country Amount produced Percentage of world production
Côte d’Ivoire 1.23 million tons 34.7%
Ghana 746 thousand tons 20.6%
Indonesia 489 thousand tons 13.8%
Cameroon 220 thousand tons 5.9%
Nigeria 210 thousand tons 5.9%
Brazil 165 thousand tons 4.7%
Ecuador 130 thousand tons 3.7%
Malaysia 32 thousand tons 0.9%

Rest are : Nigeria, Cameroon, Ecuador , Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, Dominican Republic and Peru

More than 3,000,000 tonnes (3,000,000 long tons; 3,300,000 short tons) of cocoa are produced each year. The global production was

1974: 1,556,484 tons,
1984: 1,810,611 tons,
1994: 2,672,173 tons,
2004: 3,607,052 tons.

The production increased by 131.7% in 30 years, representing a compound annual growth rate of 2.9%.

More info: SOURCE

Some Market Facts about Cocoa Beans

– The size of each Traded contract is 10 metric tons

– Current Futures Price (Oct 9, 2014) (Dec 14 Contract) Snap 2014-10-12 at 16.10.48

Although cocoa is one of the world’s smallest soft commodity markets, it has global implications on cocoa importers and exporters, food and candy producers, and the retail industry.

Commodity code is CJ

How much is a metric ton?

Snap 2014-10-12 at 16.47.14

Relative Comparison:

Snap 2014-10-12 at 16.49.13


1 CJ (Cocoa Beans Futures Contract) Equivalent:

Snap 2014-10-12 at 16.10.48

The size of each contract is 10 metric tons in the NYSE

One futures contract – $3057 x 10 = $30,570 USD

Mexican Peso – $3057 USD – Interbank rate (Oct 12 2014) – 13.45

1 Ton – $41, 117 MXN

1 CJ Futures contract (10 t) – $411,117

Historical Cocoa beans Graph 54 Years (1960 – 2014) 

Snap 2014-10-12 at 16.17.01

Cocoa decreased to 3096.69 USD/MT in October from 3330.18 USD/MT in September of 2014. Cocoa averaged 1586.27 from 1959 until 2014, reaching an all time high of 5368 in July of 1977 and a record low of 0 in September of 2014. NOTE: OMG; for me, a historically relevant clear signal of a combination of price algorithms and market manipulation Abuse! (I have sent a direct request to the source for more information on this event, lets see what happens!)


Historical Cocoa beans Graph 20 Years (1984 – 2014) 


Historical Natural Gas Futures “24 years” (1990-2014)

Historical Natural Gas Futures “24 years” (1990-2014)



Money Facts #13 – Oldest use of gold as money 6000 B.C.

Monetary History – Oldest use of gold as money 6000 B.C.

Process Metallurgy is one of the oldest applied sciences. Its history can be traced back to 6000 BC. Admittedly, its form at that time was rudimentary, but, to gain a perspective in Process Metallurgy, it is worthwhile to spend a little time studying the initiation of mankind’s association with metals. Currently there are 86 known metals. Before the 19th century only 24 of these metals had been discovered and, of these 24 metals, 12 were discovered in the 18th century. Therefore, from the discovery of the first metals – gold and copper until the end of the 17th century, some 7700 years, only 12 metals were known. Four of these metals, arsenic, antimony , zinc and bismuth , were discovered in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, while platinum was discovered in the 16th century. The other seven metals, known as the Metals of Antiquity, were the metals upon which civilisation was based. These seven metals were:

(1) Gold (ca) 6000BC

These metals were known to the Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Greeks and the Romans. Of the seven metals, five can be found in their native states, e.g., gold, silver, copper, iron (from meteors) and mercury. However, the occurrence of these metals was not abundant and the first two metals to be used widely were gold and copper. And, of course, the history of metals is closely linked to that of coins and gemstones



2,700 years of history

The heritage of ancient coins is a subject that intrigues and delights collectors and scholars the world over. The oldest coin available today was discovered in Efesos, an ancient Hellenic city and prosperous trading center on the coast of Asia Minor. The 1/6 stater, pictured below, is more than 2,700 years old, making it one of the very earliest coins. Made from electrum, a natural occuring alloy of gold and silver, the coin originated in the area of Lydia. It had a design on one side only, a result of the primitive method of manufacture. This ancient stater was hand struck. A die with a design (in this case a lion’s head) for the obverse (front) of the coin was placed on an anvil. A blank piece of metal was placed on top of the die, and a punch hammered onto the reverse. The result was a coin with an image on one side and a punch mark on the other.


Historical bitcoin vs Usd Part II – Bitcoin Epic Kick ass!

Historical bitcoin vs Usd Part II – Bitcoin Epic Kick ass!


Cryptocurrency Epic Kick ass!

ImagePercent Increase 80,000%

Dear Traders, 

Awesome to all the bitcoin traders out there, you have made life time earnings!!!!

I must admit that i did not participate in this unique bull run, even though i followed it, I didn’t fully understand its profile and monetary impact. My sincere congratulations if you put money in this external instrument, awesome epic returns, once in a life time!!!

Personally, I will not participate at this level ($801 USD) because the Risk:Reward does not fit my profile at this level. Lets see some charts and simulations of investment! it’s mind-blowing! 🙂

Mexican Peso Simulation 

(Initial Investment – $25,000 MXN / USD ($13.00) Exchange Rate) x $5 usd vs bitcoin = 384 Bitcoins 

384 Bitcoins  x current USD x bitcoin price ($801 USD per Bitcoin (Closing Price Nov 18, 2013.)

384 Bitcoins x $801 USD = $307,584 USD 

$307,584 USD X MXN (13.00) = $3,998,592 MXN


Mexican Peso Simulation

$25,000 MXN vs $5 bitcoin 384 Bitcoins

$801 USD vs Bitcoin = $307,584 USD 

$307,584 USD x 13.00$3,998,592 MXN

You can Buy an awesome apartment in cash with these returns!

Dear Traders, 

Awesome to all the bitcoin traders out there, you have made life time earnings!!!!

I must admit that i did not participate in this unique bull run, even though i followed it, I didn’t fully understand its profile and monetary impact. My sincere congratulations if you put money in this external instrument, awesome epic returns, once in a life time!!!

Personally, I will not participate at this level ($801 USD) because the Risk:Reward does not fit my profile at this level. Lets see some charts and simulations of investment! it’s mind-blowing! 🙂


Take care, use stops and all the best!

Dimitri Feria Kislaja

Snap 2013-11-18 at 18.39.12

Historical Nickel Prices (1983-2013) (30 Years)

Historical Nickel Prices (1983-2013) (30 Years)

Snap 2013-10-15 at 22.42.17


Nickel is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile. Pure nickel shows a significant chemical activity that can be observed when nickel is powdered to maximize the exposed surface area on which reactions can occur, but larger pieces of the metal are slow to react with air at ambient conditions due to the formation of a protective oxide surface. Even then, nickel is reactive enough with oxygen that native nickel is rarely found on Earth’s surface, being mostly confined to the interiors of larger nickel–iron meteorites that were protected from oxidation during their time in space. On Earth, such native nickel is always found in combination with iron, a reflection of those elements’ origin as major end products ofsupernova nucleosynthesis. An iron–nickel mixture is thought to compose Earth’s inner core.[3]

The use of nickel (as a natural meteoric nickel–iron alloy) has been traced as far back as 3500 BC. Nickel was first isolated and classified as a chemical element in 1751 by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, who initially mistook its ore for a copper mineral. The element’s name comes from a mischievous sprite of German miner mythology, Nickel (similar to Old Nick), that personified the fact that copper-nickel ores resisted refinement into copper. An economically important source of nickel is the iron ore limonite, which often contains 1-2% nickel. Nickel’s other important ore minerals include garnierite, and pentlandite. Major production sites include the Sudbury region in Canada (which is thought to be of meteoricorigin), New Caledonia in the Pacific, and Norilsk in Russia.

Because of nickel’s slow rate of oxidation at room temperature, it is considered corrosion-resistant. Historically, this has led to its use: i) for platingmetals such as iron and brass ii) in chemical apparatus and iii) in certain alloys that retain a high silvery polish, such as German silver. About 6% of world nickel production is still used for corrosion-resistant pure-nickel plating. Nickel was once a common component of coins, but has largely been replaced by cheaper iron for this purpose, especially since the metal is a skin allergen for some people. It was reintroduced into UK coins in 2012 despite objections from dermatologists.[4]

Nickel is one of four elements that are ferromagnetic around room temperature. Alnico permanent magnets based partly on nickel are of intermediate strength between iron-based permanent magnets and rare-earth magnets. The metal is chiefly valuable in the modern world for thealloys it forms; about 60% of world production is used in nickel-steels (particularly stainless steel). Other common alloys, as well as some newsuperalloys, make up most of the remainder of world nickel use, with chemical uses for nickel compounds consuming less than 3% of production.[5] As a compound, nickel has a number of niche chemical manufacturing uses, such as a catalyst for hydrogenationEnzymes of some microorganisms and plants contain nickel as an active site, which makes the metal an essential nutrient for them.



Nickel prices declined 3087.00 USD/MT or 18.13 percent during the last 12 months. Historically, from 1993 until 2013, Nickel averaged 13479.5 USD/MT reaching an all time high of 54050.0 USD/MT in May of 2007 and a record low of 3730.5 USD/MT in December of 1998. Nickel high melting point and resistance to corrosion have contributed to its diversified use. Nickel is mainly used in the production of stainless steel and other alloys and can be found in food preparation equipment, mobile phones, medical equipment, transport, buildings, power generation. The biggest producers of nickel are Russia, Canada, New Caledonia, Australia, Indonesia, Cuba, China, South Africa, Dominican Republic, Botswana, Columbia, Greece and Brazil. Nickel futures are available for trading in The London Metal Exchange (LME). The standard contact has a weight of 6 tonnes. This page contains – Nickel – actual values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar and news. 2013-10-16


Historic Nickel Prices 1997 – 2013

Snap 2013-10-15 at 22.24.53


Historical Nickel Prices 1983 -2013 (30 years)

Snap 2013-10-15 at 22.22.24