World Stock Exchanges – MERVAL Buenos Aires Stock Exchange

World Stock Exchanges – MERVAL Buenos Aires Stock Exchange


The Buenos Aires Stock Exchange (BCBASpanishBolsa de Comercio de Buenos Aires) is the organization responsible for the operation of Argentina‘s primary stock exchange located at Buenos Aires CBD. Founded in 1854, is the successor of the Banco Mercantil, created in 1822 by Bernardino Rivadavia.

Citing BCBA’s self-definition: “It is a self-regulated non-profit civil association. At its Council sit representatives of all different sectors of Argentina’s economy.”

The most important index of the Stock market is the MERVAL (from MERcado de VALores, “stock market”), which includes the most important papers. Other indicators are BurcapBolsa General and M.AR., and currency indicators Indol and Wholesale Indol.



The Stock Exchange’s current, Leandro Alem Avenue headquarters was designed by Norwegian-Argentine architect Alejandro Christophersen in 1913, and completed in 1916. A modernist annex was designed by local architect Mario Roberto Álvarez in 1972, and inaugurated in 1977.


Official Website



The MERVAL Index (MERcado de VALores, literally Stock Exchange) is the most important index of the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange. It is aprice-weighted index, calculated as the market value of a portfolio of stocks selected based on their market share, number of transactions and quotation price. The base of MERVAL is set at 30 June 1986 = 0.01 Argentine pesos.

The corporations and weighted prices that compose MERVAL are updated every three months, based on their market share during the previous period.

As of August 2013 the companies in it are Aluar (alu smelter), BBVA Banco FrancésBanco MacroSociedad Comercial del Plata (holding),Edenor (electricity), Grupo Financeiro Galícia (financial), Pampa EnergíaPetrobras ArgentinaTernium(=Siderar)(steel), Telecom Argentina,Tenaris (steel pipes), YPF (oil and gas). [1]





Gold Production Worldwide Metric Tons Output

Gold Production Worldwide Metric Tons OutputImage

*NOTE- China currently does not export any of their gold mining output, hmm why would that be ?

*NOTE – Indian citizens have accumulated more gold reserves than many  countries all combined, really… look it up…

World’s Biggest Airlines by Market Capitalization

World’s Biggest Airlines by Market Capitalization 

Following is a table of airlines by market capitalization (in dollars) 2011:

Air China Ltd $15.32 bln

Lan and TAM combined $12.38 bln

Singapore Airlines Ltd $10.52 bln

China Southern Airlines $9.43 bln

All Nippon Airways Co Ltd $8.13 bln

China Eastern Airlines Corp $7.66 bln

Delta Air Lines Inc $7.08 bln

United Continental Holdings $6.86 bln

Southwest Airlines Co $6.83 bln

Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd $6.62 bln

Lufthansa AG $6.15 bln

Ryanair Holdings Plc $6.01 bln

18 Largest Stock Exchanges of the World

18 Largest Stock Exchanges of the World

List of stock exchanges

his is a list of active stock exchanges. Those futures exchanges that also offer trading in securities besides trading in futures contracts are listed both here and the list of futures exchanges.

Major Stock Exchanges : as at 31 December 2011 [1]

Rank Stock Exchange Economy Headquarters Market Capitalization
(USD Billions)
Trade Value
(USD Billions)
1 NYSE Euronext  United States/
New York City 14,242 20,161
2 NASDAQ OMX  United States/
New York City 4,687 13,552
3 Tokyo Stock Exchange  Japan Tokyo 3,325 3,972
4 London Stock Exchange  United Kingdom London 3,266 2,837
5 Shanghai Stock Exchange  China Shanghai 2,357 3,658
6 Hong Kong Stock Exchange  Hong Kong Hong Kong 2,258 1,447
7 Toronto Stock Exchange  Canada Toronto 1,912 1,542
8 BM&F Bovespa  Brazil São Paulo 1,229 931
9 Australian Securities Exchange  Australia Sydney 1,198 1,197
10 Deutsche Börse  Germany Frankfurt 1,185 1,758
11 SIX Swiss Exchange  Switzerland Zurich 1,090 887
12 Shenzhen Stock Exchange  China Shenzhen 1,055 2,838
13 BME Spanish Exchanges  Spain Madrid 1,031 1,226
14 Bombay Stock Exchange  India Mumbai 1,007 148
15 Korea Exchange  South Korea Seoul 996 2,029
16 National Stock Exchange of India  India Mumbai 985 589
17 Moscow Exchange  Russia Moscow 800 514
18 JSE Limited  South Africa Johannesburg 789 372


Largest Aluminium Producers in the World

Largest Aluminium Producers in the World 

Aluminium Facts

Aluminium (play /ˌæljˈmɪniəm/ al-ew-min-ee-əm) or aluminum (American Englishplay /əˈlmɪnəm/ ə-loo-mi-nəm) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is silvery white, and it is not soluble in water under normal circumstances.

Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth‘s crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth’s solid surface. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[6] The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite.

Aluminium is remarkable for the metal’s low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and are important in other areas of transportation and structural materials. The most useful compounds of aluminium, at least on a weight basis, are the oxides and sulfates.

Despite its prevalence in the environment, aluminium salts are not known to be used by any form of life. In keeping with its pervasiveness, aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals.[7] Owing to their prevalence, potential beneficial (or otherwise) biological roles of aluminium compounds are of continuing interest.

silvery gray metallic

Spectral lines of aluminium
General properties
Name, symbol,number aluminium, Al, 13
Pronunciation UK Listeni/ˌæljʉˈmɪniəm/
al-ew-min-ee-əm; orUS Listeni/əˈlmɨnəm/
Element category other metal
Groupperiod,block 133p
Standard atomic weight 26.9815386(13)
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p1
2, 8, 3

Electron shells of aluminium (2, 8, 3)
Rank Country/Region Aluminium production
(thousands of tonnes)
 World 44,100[3]
1 China People’s Republic of China 18,000[3]
2 Russia Russia 4,000[3]
3 Canada Canada 2,970[3]
4 United States United States 1,990[3]
5 Australia Australia 1,930[3]
6 United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 1,800[3]
7 India India 1,700[3]
8 Brazil Brazil 1,410[3]
9 Bahrain Bahrain 870[3]
10 Norway Norway 800[3]



Largest Company Produces Output

1. United Co. Rusal 4,127

2. Rio Tinto Group 3,829

3. Alcoa Inc. 3,669

4. Aluminum Corp. of China 3,127

5. Norsk Hydro ASA 1,705

6. Dubai Aluminium Co. 1,386

7. China Power Investment Co. 1,381

8. BHP Billiton Ltd. 1,249

9. Shandong Xinfa Aluminum and Electricity Group 1,016

10. Aluminium Bahrain BSC 881


Rank Country/Region Aluminium production
(thousands of tonnes)
 World 44,100[3]
1 China People’s Republic of China 18,000[3]
2 Russia Russia 4,000[3]
3 Canada Canada 2,970[3]
4 United States United States 1,990[3]
5 Australia Australia 1,930[3]
6 United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 1,800[3]
7 India India 1,700[3]
8 Brazil Brazil 1,410[3]
9 Bahrain Bahrain 870[3]
10 Norway Norway 800[3]
11 South Africa South Africa 800[3]
12 Iceland Iceland 790[3]
13 Mozambique Mozambique 560[3]
14 Iran Iran 460 [4]
16 Germany Germany 450[3]
15 Argentina Argentina 400
14 Venezuela Venezuela 380[3]
17 Tajikistan Tajikistan 359
18 Oman Oman 351
19 France France 345
20 Netherlands Netherlands 300
21 New Zealand New Zealand 350[5]
22 Egypt Egypt 265
23 United Kingdom United Kingdom 253
24 Indonesia Indonesia 250
26 Romania Romania 229
27 Italy Italy 180
28 Greece Greece 160
29 Slovakia Slovakia 150
30 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 127
31 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina 96
32 Slovenia Slovenia 85
33 Cameroon Cameroon 73
34= Spain Spain 70
34= Sweden Sweden 70
36 Turkey Turkey 65
37 Montenegro Montenegro 64
38 Ukraine Ukraine 50
39 Poland Poland 47
40 Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 30
41 Nigeria Nigeria 13
42 Qatar Qatar 10
43 Japan Japan 7